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The study of science changes everyday with the growing prevalence of technology and continuous progress being made in a variety of different fields in science. Scientists have discovered new ways to approach, and information relating to, medicine and the human body.
Pharmacology is studied by scientists who help to determine how drugs and different types of medication may heal and aid the body in resisting diseases and infections. Pharmacology is broken down into many divisions pertaining to a variety of subtopics, including a drug's affect on living cells to the chemicals that may be dangerous to our bodies. The information and links provided will ensure a better understanding of pharmacology and the way it has developed and grown in it's significance in recent years.
All About Pharmacology
Pharmacology is the scientific study of drugs, including what different types of drugs do, how they work, and specific types of drugs that are used for different ailments. The study of pharmacology also relates to how the human body adapts and reacts to different drugs. Pharmacology and Pharmacy, while they may uphold some of the same principles, are still very different studies.
Pharmacy is the scientific study of preparing and dispensing medications for human consumption. Pharmacy reports the chemical interactions between a given medication and the human body. Both studies share similarities in reporting the study of physiological reactions of the body to a medication. Another aspect within the study of pharmacology is how drugs are metabolized within the body.
- Pharmacology: Explore and learn more about pharmacology.
- Study of Drugs: More information relating to pharmacology and a PDF file to Nobel Prize Awards given to scientists in physiology and medicine.
- Timeline: Learn about the history of pharmacology from 1790 to the 2000s.
Oswald Schmiedeberg is credited as the founder of today's modern pharmacology. Schmiedeberg showed that the vagus nerve and heart were both effected by muscularity. His studies launched the pharmaceutical beliefs in Germany up until World War II. Prior to this mankind used natural elements, including animal parts and plants to treat injuries and wounds. In thebirth and creation of pharmacology, Germany's Friedrich Wohler changed the theory of that time that stated living compounds were only established in organic cells. Wohler became known for his works and established the first compound of pharmacology.
- History: Obtain a brief history of pharmacology and early scientists.
- Origins: PDF file of the origins and history of pharmacology in the 16 th century.
- EBPS: The history of the European Behavioral Pharmacology.
- Friedrich Wohler: A brief biography of the German chemist.
- Oswald Schmiedeberg: A brief biography of German pharmacologist.
- Discoveries: An article giving great detail about very important early studies of pharmacology and the people who performed early studies.
Divisions of Pharmacology
There are several distinct divisions in the field of pharmacology, each with a specific focus. Clinical pharmacology addresses the scientific clinical use of drugs. Neuropharmacology is the study of how drugs affect the nervous system. A third division is characterized as the study of pharmacogenetics, which means the testing of genes and how they interact with drugs, while pharmacogenomics relate to combining gene information to a drug's damage organism. Pharmacoepidemiology studies drug substances and the way they affect numerous groups of people. Toxicology also falls into the greater field of pharmacology and addresses chemicals and how they affect living organisms in the body. Theoretical pharmacology is a study of theory or an idea relating to the study of drugs.Posology deals with the amount of drugs capable for the body. Pharmacognosy studies the properties of drugs in the natural stages such as the medicinal benefits of plants and other types of organisms. The last division is behavioral pharmacology which studies the way drugs affect the way a person acts or behaves. As one can see, there are many different branches of pharmacology, each is very specialized and is creditedwith a variety of different contributions to the scientific community.
- Pharmacogenomics: Detailed information and how pharmacogenomics is used today.
- Pharmacoepidemiology: Medical school that is known for its biomedical research.
- Toxicology: An article about why tests are done and how tests are performed.
- Posology: More information about what is posology.
- Pharmacognosy: More detailed information about pharmacognosy.
- Behavioral Pharmacology: Organization that helps members learn more about how drugs affect a person's behavior.
The study of science is constantly changing and progressing at an unprecedented rate of growth. The accelerated rate at which the field of sciences progresses poses unique challenges to the scientific community as we continue to develop “before their time” methods of research and explore the unknowns of the science community. Scientists continue to perform numerous tests and experiments on newly developed drugs to analyze their effects on the human body and their viability as quality medical resources. A variety of different reviews and analysis have been created within the medical community to critique experiments on the effects of experimental drugs to protect the global community and to ensure that harmful drugs are unknowingly prescribed by physicians.
- Drugs: Online drug source updated daily about recent drug information and news for over 24,000 prescription drugs.
- Review: a PDF review of the pharmacology of lysergic acid diethylamide.
- Pathological Conditions: PDF file of pharmacological research of antioxidants in pathological conditions.
- Pharmacology: PDF review of the myths and claims about cocoa being healthy for the human body.
- Research: PDF analysis of pharmacological research.
Medicine Development, Drug Legislation and Safety
Medicine first began with the practice of using plants and animals to heal wounds, injuries and sores, from the earliest development of the New Stone Age Period. But over time, it has morphed into the form of pills, pure liquid and other substances. An example of the profound pharmacological developments that have taken place in recorded history is the first study that proved that blood maintained a continuous flow, which came from the Chinese emperor Huang-Ti. It wasn't until 750 BCE whenSusruta , a Hindu surgeon first practiced eye surgery. Long before the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved such procedures and their accompanying drugs, they were being used medicinally, a testament of the commitment to experimentation and development that has been evident in medical community. All drugs are not legal for use due to safety rules and regulations, and ways it could affect the human body. The Prescription Drug Marketing Act of 1987 ensures the safety of prescription drugs, while the 1988 Anti-drug Abuse Act prohibit abusive drug use that may harm the body. Regulations of safety issues are done from inspections and properly using labels approved by the FDA.
- FDA: Links that provide information to learn more about the process of drug safety and drug approvals.
- Drugs: A complete full list of the FDA approved drugs in alphabetical order and links to provide more information on each drug.
- Recall Drugs: A list of approved and recalled drugs from 1980 to 2007.
- History: A timeline of the history of medicine from 2600 BC to 2006.
- Anti-Drug Abuse Act: Detailed information about the Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1988.
- FDA: More information about the FDA and what it is.
- Herbal Remedies: Information on some of the Chinese scientists who discovered and experimented with herbal medicine.
Glossaries and Drug Lists
One of the challenges that the medical community has consistently encountered is that each human body reacts differently to each drug introduced into the system. If a patient reacts unusually or out of the scope of the anticipated reaction, it would be very important to document the drug reactions and seek treatment immediately. Further testing may be necessary to determine the cause of the abnormal reaction and to detect any possible allergy. If you recognize symptoms you're having that relate to some diseases or illnesses after taking drugs, then it's best to document the drug reaction and seek medical attention. To prevent patients from experiencing unanticipated side effects to medication, numerous organizations and publishers have released drug indexes and guide books to help both medical professionals and consumers better prescribe and understand the complexities behind each manufactured drug. Understanding the chemistry, the intended use, and the effects of experimental drugs is critical to achieving a positive outcome and correctly providing medical attention to patients.
- Glossary: A list of links of all the glossary terms and symbols used in pharmacology.
- Pharmacology: A list of terms listed on one page in alphabetical order.
- Symbols: A list of commonly used terms and abbreviations along with their meanings.
- Drug Lists: A list of drugs in alphabetical order along with their uses, side effects, and components.
- Review: Clinical pharmacology and medical reviews of 88 terms in PDF form.